All electrical devices or installations affect each other when they are connected or close to each other; for example; Interference between TV sets, GSM phones, radios and nearby washing machine or power lines. The purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is to keep all these side effects under reasonable control. EMC identifies all current and future techniques and technologies to reduce noncompliance and improve the immune system.
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) The 2014 / 30 / EU Directive ensures that electrical and electronic equipment does not create or affect electromagnetic disturbances.
When used as intended, the EMC directive limits electromagnetic emissions from equipment to ensure that, among other equipment, radio and telecommunications are not disturbed. The directive also governs the immunity of such equipment to interference and seeks to ensure that this equipment is not disturbed by radio emissions when used as intended.
The main objectives of the directives are to regulate the compatibility of EMC-related equipment:
- Equipment (device and fixed installations) must comply with EMC requirements when placed on the market and / or put into service
- Implementation of good engineering practices is required in fixed plants, with the possibility that the competent authorities of EU countries can implement measures in cases of non-compliance.
Almost all electrical and electronic devices can form 'interference' in some way or indirectly. A clear example is radio interference caused by electric drills or poorly suppressed motorcycle engines. For those who listen to their favorite music or TV show, it is at least parasitic and disappointing. At the other end, emergency radio communications, aircraft navigation systems, and so on. deteriorate.
This intervention is not necessarily just a “spread fen phenomenon, but can be transmitted from one product (source) to another (victim) through an electrical distribution cable in a home or office block.
Another type of interference is caused by power supply circuits in almost any electronic product, including lighting systems. These circuits are well known for disrupting the mains supply voltage by drawing 'harmonic' currents from the grid. These harmonics are frequencies that are multiples of the 50 / 60Hz supply and can cause malfunctions in the electricity distribution network.
All of the above relates to one or other types of 'emissions'. The sum of all this creates an electrical noise level in the environment. Some environments (such as industrial areas) will be worse than others, and some environments (for example, at home) should be quieter.
The energy in the emitted emissions can occur mainly from voltage stress or magnetic field or (both at radio frequencies). They are all forms of electromagnetic emissions.
The other side of the coin is to ensure that the products can work satisfactorily in the expected environment. This is a measure of its sensitivity (or immunity) to electromagnetic noise. Again, this measure has several aspects. Not only radiated and transmitted RF requirements, but ESD, magnetic fields, main power failure, falls and blackouts. See later for the official list.
The aim of the EU directive (and FCC rules in the USA) is to keep all emissions low and to keep all immunity levels high, thus creating a wide margin of safety to prevent problems. This is the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) principle. Products declared in accordance with this principle are EMC compliant.
In the EU, all electrical products are covered by the EMC Directive. In the US, all products that use / produce consumer, IT and RF should consider emissions only in Australia / New Zealand, but this applies to all electrical products. It is therefore important to check the applicable rules in the region where the product is to be sold or used. In all cases where EMC rules exist (and this means almost the entire developed world), EMC compliance is mandatory and penalties, including withdrawal of all products, are applied for non-compliance.
You must ensure that your products are compatible and consistent. The best way to achieve this is to clearly measure emissions and test immunity. If your product is low volume, a single sample is tested, but if the product is in production, the sample should be tested regularly.
Your compliance strategy may be to use test labs to check your products, or to test yourself or use a combination of the two. The optimal path depends on the product volume and the number of different products to be tested. In general, if more than five tests are required per year, self-testing offers convenience, cost and clear advantages in the timeline.
There are significant benefits in testing a product throughout the development cycle. It is expensive redesigned and delays are avoided. Even if this aspect of the requirements is not necessary, the ease of testing at any time and without having to travel and book a test lab is important.
But the basic fact is that the sooner you start to check the compatibility of new product developments, the better. A failed test at the end of a product development cycle can be extremely expensive for the effort required to redesign the product; it also has an impact on 'time to market'.
Many standard test techniques require special test areas and / or test chambers. EUROLAB has researched and developed unique techniques and a team that allows you to safely test your product in your own environment.
EMCAlso known as electromagnetic compatibility in Turkish. As the name suggests, it is based on the principle that the magnetic properties of any device meet the desired conditions.
products have reached the final stage of design in Turkey are sent to the testing laboratory to be tested product specific requirements of each product has a unique standard of its kind, and the lower and upper values for each and specifications are indicated. Official reports are prepared and delivered to the manufacturer. If the test results are positive, the company uses these documents for marking operations (CE marking, TSE marking, etc.). If negative, the reasons for this are determined and redesigned and re-tested on the product in question.
The products are expected not to be affected by the electromagnetic waves coming on them and not to affect living things with the electromagnetic waves they spread around.
There are specific values for magnetic waves to determine these and these values are checked at the test centers.
Electromagnetic waves are sent to the product in a semi-reflective or non-reflective room with the help of a special antenna and wave generating devices and it is checked whether it continues to work smoothly. At the same time, if the product has electrical and input output sockets, the operating values are checked. It means that products that fall outside the values cannot pass the test.
The three basic elements in an electromagnetic interference problem are:
- Coupling Way
- Affected system
Today, EMC has become a much more sensitive topic. From military fields to space technologies, from medicine to industrial applications or to the automotive industry, every segment has to comply with EMC requirements.
Electromagnetic Interference Immunity Measurements
- Feminists in Implus form: Discharge of Static Electricity Electrostatic Discharge, Tension pulses in conductors
- Feminists in continuous or implant form: High frequency effect through radiation, High frequency effect through conductors, High frequency effect through 50-Hz-Magnetic field
- Other Functors - Voltage dips & Interrupts such as overvoltage spikes, voltage interruptions
- National radio and television receivers,
- Industrial production equipment,
- Mobile radio equipment,
- Mobile radio and commercial cordless telephone equipment,
- Medical and scientific instruments,
- Information technology equipment,
- Household appliances and household electronics,
- Air and marine radio (radio) equipment,
- Electronic training tools,
- Telecommunication networks and equipment,
- Radio and television broadcasting transmitters,
- Lamps and fluorescent lamps.
The aforementioned means and other means shall be constructed in such a manner as to have sufficient electromagnetic immunity in ordinary electromagnetic environments.